Print Sources

Article from an Anthology

(see below for several examples)

References Entry Writing the World

Wilson, W. (2000) When Work Disappears. In C. Cooper, & S. Peck

MacDonald (Eds.), Writing the world (pp. 356-362). Boston/New

York: Bedford/St. Martin's.

In-text citations for entry above:
Direct quote:

Urban ghettos were never a matter of choice. As Williams (2000) notes, “If large segments of the African-American population had not been historically segregated in inner-city ghettos, we would not be talking about the new urban poverty” (p. 361). And this poverty is a direct result of a pattern of racism that affects education and job choice, and thus economic status.

Direct Quote of more than four lines on your page:

Another problem with ghettos is that they limit job choices for those that live there. Williams (2000) argues that

Segregated ghettos are less conducive to employment and employment preparation than are other areas of the city. Segregation in ghettos exacerbates employment problems because it leads to weak informal employment networks and contributes to the social isolation of individuals and families, thereby reducing their chances of acquiring the human capital skills, including adequate educational training [. . .] that facilitate mobility in a society. (p. 361)

This would help explain why people who are raised in ghettos have fewer job opportunities than those that grow up in the suburbs.

Note ellipsis for excluded words in square brackets.  Three dots are used because the words removed are within a sentence.

Anthology Series (Taking Sides, Opposing Viewpoints, etc.)

References Entry Opposing Viewpoints

Marsh, D. (1989). America's Values Are Found in Its Documents. In

D. Bender  (Ed.), American Values: Opposing Viewpoints (pp.

17-25). San Diego: Greenhaven Press.

In-text citations for entry above:
Partial direct quote: From Opposing Viewpoints

For our political system to function, our electorate needs a basic understanding of the underpinnings of democracy. Daniel L. Marsh (1989), former president of Boston College, argues that Americans "must have an intelligent comprehension of the ideas and ideals that underlie our [. . .] democracy" (p. 18). His emphasis on "intelligent comprehension" supports the view that the dreaded civics class needs to be revitalized.

Note ellipsis for excluded words in square brackets.  Three dots are used because the words removed are within a sentence.

Material by Editor in an Anthology

References Entry

Cooper, C. & Peck MacDonald, S. (Eds). (2000). Writing the world

Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's.

In-text citation for entry above
Direct Quote

To fully engage in American culture, Charles Cooper and Susan Peck MacDonald  write, "means entering the conversation finding out what others think, figuring out what you think, and gaining a deeper understanding of the world you live in" (p. 1).

Article from CQ Researcher (Print)

References Entry

Cooper, M. (1997). Income inequality. CQ Researcher 10: 337-360. 

Author's Last name, First Initial. (Year published). Title with first word capitalized. Title of Journal Volume: pages from beginning to end.

In-text citation for entry above
Summarized source:

Work for a living? Feeling a bit poor lately? The link between the two is not difficult to explain when you examine recent pay raises. In 1997, the average worker received a raise of 3 percent. Her CEO? Many earned a 21 percent raise (Cooper, 1997). Feeling a bit angry now? 


References Entry

Hirsch, E. (1987). Cultural literacy: what every american needs

to know. New York: Vintage Books. 

In-text citation for entry above
Direct Quote

Hirsch (1987) warns that focusing only on a particular trade or field can ultimately limit a person's career choices: "Narrow vocational training in one state of a technology will not enable a person to read manuals that explain new developments in the same technology.  In modern life we need general knowledge that enables us to deal with new ideas, events, and challenges" (p. 11).  Embracing all the knowledge that a culture offers, including literature, music, art, mathematics, history, and the sciences, amounts to job security, because it gives students the skills to face any intellectual — or employment —  challenge. 

Magazine (Print)

References Entry

Levinson, M. & Rich T. (1996, Jan. 15). One tax fits all.

Newsweek, p. 38.

In-text citation for entry above

A flat tax rate sounds like a good idea, but as Levinson and Thomas (1996) argue, it would amount to higher taxes for the working class, and no taxes at all for the leisure class — those people who live off money handed down to them.

Newspaper (Print)

References Entry

James, C. (1995, Dec. 3). Dysfunction wears out its welcome. New

York Times, pp. H1, H23.

If source was in a numbered section, use the following format

James, C (1995, Dec. 3). Dysfunction wears out its welcome. New

York Times, pp. sec. 3:1, 3:23.

In-text citation for entry above
Partial direct quote – ellipsis dots rule is three if within sentence, four if subtracted phrase include a period.  Use brackets to separate your ellipsis from the quote

After analyzing current sitcoms, James (1995) discovers that "[. . .] they have come to resemble melodrama and soap opera more than they reflect comic versions of real life" (p H1).


(note: usually only signed articles are acceptable for academic essays)

References Entry

Frueh, C. (2000). Posttraumatic stress disorder.  In A. Kazdin

(Ed.) Encyclopedia of Psychology (vols. 1-6), New York:

Oxford University Press.

In-text citation for entry above:

Frueh (2000) reports that Psychologists believe one of the main features of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder is that the "event is persistently reexperienced" (p. 249).

Book with Two or More Authors

References Entry

Phelps, T & Winternitz H. (1993). Capital Games. New York: Harper


In-text citation for entry above
Direct quote:

In their examination of the Anita Hill and Clarence Thomas controversy, Phelps and Winternitz (1993) come to the ominous conclusion that either "a Supreme Court justice had committed perjury to get himself on the bench or Hill and his opponents had engaged in an unprecedented criminal conspiracy in an attempt to defeat him" (p. 441). From the evidence in their book, it seems that someone has committed perjury.